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PVT Analyses

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Overview

Today’s fast-paced market requires quick results and accurate data to make reliable hydrocarbon decisions in a timely manner. The GeoMark PVT Laboratory performs a full range of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) studies, oil-based mud evaluations, and flow assurance screening with rapid turnaround. High-resolution compositional analysis is often combined with isotopic measurements to deliver extremely detailed communication studies.

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Applications

PVT analysis is the scientific process used to determine phase behavior and fluid properties of oil and gas samples from your well—both in the reservoir (downhole) and at the surface. This analytic testing information gives you a better understanding of your hydrocarbon reserves, so you can apply the most cost-effective extraction methods to optimize production. Refer to PVT Lab Testing – Best Practices.

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Downhole PVT Samples

Downhole samples are primarily acquired by the customer directly from oil and gas wells located offshore. The sampling tools are often conveyed on wireline and activated from the surface to capture representative fluids. Advanced single-phase chambers keep the fluids above reservoir pressure, despite cooling during transfer, helping to avoid pressure drop induced asphaltene precipitation.

Once received in our laboratory, the collected fluid samples are restored via agitation at the original reservoir pressure and temperature. Initial validation checks provide basic PVT properties and a measure of oil-based mud contamination common to open-hole samples. More in-depth analyses provide additional information about specific hydrocarbon behaviors.

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Data in Context

GeoMark maintains a database of thousands of offshore PVT reports (www.rfdbase.com) for easy reference. This data provides excellent context when considering the behavior of new fluids. For example, fluids with complex geochemical sourcing usually have different PVT properties than those with more straightforward pedigrees.

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Study Questions

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[av_toggle title=’Are the captured samples reliable?’ tags=” av_uid=’av-1kvo5z’]

This question is answered by the opening pressures and initial flash validations.  Opening pressures should correspond to the reported pressures from the field. The flash validations should show consistency between fluids from the same depth and, ideally, low levels of oil-based mud contamination.

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This question is best addressed by accessing GeoMark’s Rock and Fluid Database (www.rfdbase.com).

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GeoMark offers a substantial advantage by incorporating geochemical data into our PVT studies. Geochemical markers help identify certain characteristics, like fluid thermal maturity and mixing, which are key drivers of eventual PVT behavior.

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Surface PVT Sampling

Surface sampling of reservoir fluids is taken from individual gas and liquid streams from a production separator or similar installation. Other than methods used for new offshore wells, it is by far the most common method of sampling pressurized hydrocarbon fluids.

Samples of gas and liquid exiting the separator are acquired, along with separate flow rate measurements of each, providing the gas-oil ratio (GOR). The fluids are then recombined in the laboratory to recreate representative reservoir fluids for accurate analysis.

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Data in Context

GeoMark maintains a database of thousands of onshore, separator fluid PVT reports (www.rfdbase.com) for easy reference. This data provides excellent context when considering the behavior of new fluids.  For example, unconventional fluids often have PVT properties that track well with thermal maturity.

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Study Questions

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This question is answered by the opening pressures and initial flash validations. Opening pressures should correspond to the reported pressures from the field. The flash validations should show consistency between duplicate samples

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This is often the most difficult, but key question, in conducting recombined PVT studies. Ideally, the GOR should be stable for an extended period. Also, geochemical analyses are often used to confirm, or question, the validity of the planned GOR for a PVT study.

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Dropping below the bubble point pressure dramatically reduces oil production in unconventional wells. PVT studies are used to determine this pressure and identify any corresponding gap to the reservoir pressure.

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EOR Testing

Standard enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and (PVT) testing programs include experiments, such as solubility/swelling, multi-contact, slim tube, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE), and fluid property measurements.

These tests are designed to determine the extent of gas miscibility and mixture phase behavior during gas injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs. While common in conventional reservoirs for decades, EOR programs have also found recent applicability in unconventional plays.

Surface oil and gas samples are captured and recombined to recreate downhole reservoir fluids. Injection gases may be separator or sales gas derived from a nearby installation, or synthetically prepared gas based on a composition provided to our laboratory.

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Data in Context

GeoMark has conducted a multi-client EOR consortia study in the Eagle Ford shale. The behavior of new systems is compared to the industry trends established by this relevant Eagle Ford study. Contact us to get more information about this study.

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Study Questions

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[av_toggle title=’Will a specified gas be miscible with an oil? ‘ tags=” av_uid=’av-lqkyf’]

This question is answered through a PVT and EOR testing program.  Compositional data is combined with EOR tests, like swelling and slim tubes, to determine the miscibility pressure.

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This is a difficult situation. By definition, the reservoir fluid is already saturated with gas and won’t “accept” any more to change it properties. In such cases, the most applicable test is a multi-contact equilibrium test; whereby, repeated contacts of fresh injection gas are used to vaporize some of the light components of the oil, while also reducing its viscosity.

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Dropping below the bubble point pressure dramatically reduces oil production in unconventional wells. PVT studies are used to determine this pressure and identify any corresponding gap to the reservoir pressure.

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Best Practices

GeoMark follows industry-standard best practices for all PVT laboratory testing. Our overriding mission for the 15 years we’ve been in business is to “technically do the right thing!” That means adhering to the highest scientific standards of laboratory processes and controls, taking the utmost care with each and every sample we receive. To give you the full historical picture of your reservoir, we combine geochemistry data with PVT data. Not only do you find out the bulk properties of your oil sample, you also learn why it is the way it is…the original hydrocarbon source.

Downhole oil samples are collected by a third-party service provider and sent to GeoMark’s lab. For surface oil testing purposes, GeoMark sends a highly experienced sampling engineer to collect samples at your site. We follow a strict, step-by-step procedure when collecting and transporting the samples, including type of cylinders and equipment specifications to ensure valid sampling.

Once samples are received in our lab, we pay attention to the smallest details to ensure testing accuracy. During all phases of the test program, we stay connected with you so you are part of an interactive process:

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RELATED RESOURCES

PVT Brochure

Case Study – Estimating GOR and Other Fluid Properties from Pressure Gradients and Geochemical Analyses

Case Study – Geochemical & PVT Analyses Provide Strong Evidence for Continuous Reservoir with Gas Cap Above an Oil Leg

Case Study – Geochemical Analyses Integrated with PVT Data Confirm Reservoir Continuity
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Contact Us

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