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GEOMARK RESEARCH STUDY

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Fluid Loss Study

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Objective

Develop a methodology and workflow—from wireline acquired nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to laboratory acquired NMR fluid loss correction.

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Business Impact

Bridges the gap between NMR data acquired via open-hole wireline and NMR data in the laboratory setting. Aids in revising lost fluid assumptions and corrections impacting original oil-in place (OOIP) estimates.

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Basic Principle

The NMR tool is a giant magnet that emits a strong magnetic field imparted on the formation as it is logged. The magnetic field instantly aligns all of the hydrogen atoms present in the pore spaces within the rock volume investigated (polarization, or T1). Once polarized, the tool emits a designed sequence of pulses, known as CPMG, to allow the hydrogen atoms to relax in between the timed pulsed sequence. This process results in a series of echo trains over a given depth range that are then stacked/combined to invert into a T2 distribution. The T2 distribution represents the measurement of a given fluid-filled pore volume. In general, the smaller the pores and the more hydrogen-filled, the faster the relaxation. The presence of gas-filled pore volume complicates the principle and series of relaxations that are exponentially measured when in a liquid-filled presence only. Various logging tools will measure the above physical measurements differently based on pulse sequence, inter-echo spacing, and frequency.

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Interpretation

The primary application of NMR is its utilization as an independent total porosity measurement. In addition, the T2 distributions, as related to pore bodies investigated, are used to differentiate free versus bound fluid volumes. This interpretation is based on an applied time cutoff, such as 33 ms for Gulf of Mexico sandstones, where every pore distribution greater than 33ms indicates free-fluid. In between 33 ms and 10 ms is interpreted as capillary-bound, fluid-filled pore volume and <10ms is considered clay-bound water prone. These cutoffs are interpretative and can vary per the user. NMR can also be used to derive a total water saturation and permeability measurement derived by Coates equation.

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